Up and Out: The Future of Travel Demand and Where We Live
Adapting the Built Environment
Reduce, Reuse, Bicycle
Accelerating the End of Traffic via Pricing
Post-script 1: What Happened to Traffic?
Post-script 2: Now extinct: the Traditional Transport Engineer
In this book we propose the welcome notion that traffic—as most people have come to know it—is ending and why. We depict a transport context in most communities where new opportunities are created by the collision of slow, medium, and fast moving technologies. We then unfold a framework to think more broadly about concepts of transport and accessibility. In this framework, transport systems are being augmented with a range of information technologies; it invokes fresh flows of goods and information. We discuss large scale trends that are revolutionizing the transport landscape: electrification, automation, the sharing economy, and big data. Based on all of this, the final chapters offer strategies to shape the future of infrastructure needs and priorities.
We aim for a quick read—and to encourage you and other readers to think outside your immediate realm. By the end of this book (today, if you so choose) you will appreciate the changing times in which you live. You will hopefully appreciate what is new about transport discussions and how definitions of accessibility are being reframed. You will be provided with new ways of thinking about the planning of transport infrastructure that coincide with this changing landscape. Even if transport is not your bailiwick, we like to think there is something interesting for you here. We aim to share new perspectives and reframe debates about the future of transport in cities.
Elgaronline is our ebook and journal content platform for institutional customers such as academic libraries. Researchers and lecturers at subscribing libraries can access and download book chapters and, because the number of users is not limited, you can also direct students to the materials for use in class.
For promotional purposes we have set the front matter, index and any introductory chapter of your book to be free to download.
For institutions that have purchased Elgaronline individual links at the chapter level are also available.
A review is below: published in Annals of Regional Science 38:563 – 565
Book review Levinson, DM: Financing transportation networks (Transport Economics, Management and Policy) Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (US): Edward Elgar, 2002 232 pp., US$ 95,00. ISBN 1-8406-4594-6
Financing Transportation Networks –- is a somewhat misleading title for this important contribution to the transportation finance literature. Rather than seeking to provide a general account of transportation network finance, the book examines the prospect of a widespread adoption of one type of transportation financing option –- tolls (boundary tolls, in particular). Currently, tolls represent less than 5% of total highway revenues. In comparison, gas taxes account for almost 80% of these revenues. Under the right circum- stances, a shift to widespread toll financing of transportation networks is not only possible, according to the author, but it would also offer a more equi- table solution to transportation finance. The author points out that ‘”just as gas taxes substitute more efficiently for general taxes, direct road pricing could substitute for gas taxes.”
The central premise of the book is that decentralization and smaller jurisdictions would serve to facilitate a move toward a more widespread use of tolls as a means of financing roads. The premise is based on the argument that smaller jurisdictions have more motivation to impose tolls than large jurisdictions. Large jurisdictions and centralized governance, it is argued, favor tax financing (i.e., gas taxes and general taxes), because a larger number of trips occur inside the jurisdictional boundaries of large jurisdictions (i.e., local trips) and thereby do not incur tolls (in the case of boundary tolls). The relatively high weight on local trips creates an environment where costs are difficult to recover and where the collection of tolls is politically unstable. Moreover, larger jurisdictions need to recover relatively higher costs at each toll station, due to the larger transport network serviced. Conversely, a more decentralized governance structure would serve to enhance the political fea- sibility for jurisdictions to adopt toll roads, by allowing jurisdictions to institute toll roads that tax non-residents, relatively more than local residents, as well as by reducing ‘”recover costs.” As pointed out by the author, ‘”under the right circumstances, boundary toll will enable a jurisdiction to achieve the locally ideal policy of ‘’taxing foreigners living abroad.’'”
The book is divided into six major parts. The first part (Chapt. 2) provides a comprehensive account of the history of toll roads, both internationally and in a US context. Most important, the section seeks to connect shifts in the level of governance in the US to the adoption of toll roads. Historical data is used to illustrate that the low level of turnpike utilization in the US may be explained by a trend toward national transportation policies. More recent trends, according to the author, indicate that tolls may again become a fea- sible option for road financing. The most important reason for this is argued to be the availability of new technologies for toll collection, and the com- pletion of the US interstate highway system, which have made road financing a local problem again.
The second part of the book (Chapts. 3 – 4) discusses costs and revenues involved in transportation financing. The cost section offers a conventional review of major cost categories and methodological challenges that need to be accounted for in determining the cost of transportation. While short, the revenue section empirically examines the dependence of state highway finance on tolls, by testing the hypothesis that jurisdictions highway finance is determined in part by the share of non-local traffic. The result indicates that the relative burden of tolls collected from non-locals is positively related to the size of that burden. The section on revenues also provides evidence to support the hypothesis that neighboring jurisdictions commonly respond with new or increased tolls in response to new or increased tolls levied by the neighboring jurisdictions (i.e., a retaliation behavior is found to exist).
The third part provides discussion and analysis of the implication of institutional and organizational structures on the prospect of widespread toll financing (Chapt. 5). Specifically, the relationship between network and governmental hierarchies is examined.
The fourth part (Chapt. 6) briefly addresses the issue of intertemporal equity, as it relates to temporal ‘”free-riders.”
The fifth part (Chapts. 7–- 9) considers the central premise of the book, described above, in three different contexts. These contexts include (1) a beltway; (2) a long road representing an intercity highway that goes across several states; and (3) along a state border. It is illustrated that tolls will be the preferred source of finance, in cases where jurisdictions are sufficiently small, demand sufficiently high and collection costs are relatively low, hence, sup- porting the premise of the book.
The final part of the book (Chapts. 10–-13) develops a framework for evaluating network finance decisions, and examines the deployment of ETC. A summary of the major points and conclusions of the book is provided, as well.
Overall, the book makes sufficient progress toward illustrating how decentralization and smaller jurisdictions may facilitate a move toward a more widespread use of tolls as a financing source for transportation net- works. It illustrates this by using an innovative approach, which put into question the effectiveness of the conventional institutional framework for providing public transportation services. It is noteworthy that the book, at several occasions, utilizes and applies game theory as a method of analysis. The book also addresses and raises a number of important questions about the prospect of a widespread adoption of toll roads in the US that ought to stimulate the emergence of extension studies. For these reasons, the book is an important addition to the existing body of literature on toll roads and road pricing, which conventionally have been focused on optimal road pricing. A drawback of the book is its frequent use of complex economic theories and equations to describe many phenomena addressed in the book. This may be a remnant of its origins. The book is based in part on a doctoral dissertation completed in 1998.
The book ought to be read by any practitioner or scholar who claims a serious interest in transportation finance. It would be an excellent secondary text for any course in transportation finance or policy, in either an economics department or a public policy program. This is a most welcomed addition to the transportation finance literature.
Odd J. Stalebrink West Virginia University Division of Public Administration Morgantown, WV, USA Book review 565
The steam and the perspective, and the common theme of trains and rails evoke the earlier impressionistic (though not necessarily impressionist) Rain, Steam, and Speed by JMW Turner which we used on the cover of the First Edition. Monet’s image is set in a station rather than in motion, and in urban Paris rather than the countryside of England at Brunel’s Maidenhead Railway Bridge, but if you look closely, you see structures in the background of both.
The Second Edition of The Transportation Experience differs from the First substantially. Of course all the recent data is updated (the previous edition is nearly 10 years old), the graphs extended, and the text improved. In addition, the book was reorganized chronologically into a series of Waves of Development, roughly 50-60 year periods, in which we track multiple modes in parallel.
The Transportation Experience explores the historical evolution of transportation modes and technologies. The book traces how systems are innovated, planned and adapted, deployed and expanded, and reach maturity, where they may either be maintained in a polished obsolesce often propped up by subsidies, be displaced by competitors, or be reorganized and renewed. An array of examples supports the idea that modern policies are built from past experiences.
William Garrison and David Levinson assert that the planning (and control) of nonlinear, unstable processes is today’s central transportation problem, and that this is universal and true of all modes. Modes are similar, in that they all have a triad structure of network, vehicles, and operations; but this framework counters conventional wisdom. Most think of each mode as having a unique history and status, and each is regarded as the private playground of experts and agencies holding unique knowledge, operating in isolated silos. However, this book argues that while modes have an appearance of uniqueness, the same patterns repeat: systems policies, structures, and behaviors are a generic design on varying modal cloth. In the end, the illusion of uniqueness proves to be myopic.
While it is true that knowledge has accumulated from past experiences, the heavy hand of these experiences places boundaries on current knowledge; especially on the ways professionals define problems and think about processes. The Transportation Experience provides perspective for the collections of models and techniques that are the essence of transportation science, and also expands the boundaries of current knowledge of the field.
“It’s hard to imagine a more comprehensive survey of transportation history than The Transportation Experience. The book guides readers from the days of steam engines and turnpikes to those of high-speed trains and robot-driven cars-blending top academic insight with colorful biographical bites. Whether your interest is infrastructure, public policy, transport theory, or just travel in general, you’ll grow wiser from the journey.” — Eric Jaffe, author of The King’s Best Highway
“Everything you wanted to know about transportation is in this book. It is not only a comprehensive look back at the transit methods that built the nation, but a look forward based on how the lessons from the past can be applied to the modern metropolitan economies. This book could not come at a better time.” — Robert Puentes, Director, Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, Brookings Institution
You are sitting by the fire, in your leather chair that just reeks “old money”, a reading light behind you, in your smoking robe and slippers, Labrador Retriever by your feet, pipe in one hand, a good book in another. What is that good book? Something about transportation economics and policy of course. Here are some of my favorites …
If you believe your kids should be indoctrinated in transportationism, you will get them appropriate books. While transportation fiction is a narrow category, kids books about transportation are plentiful. Here are some books and stories I liked for which the transportation technologies are important elements and geared toward younger readers.