Category Archives: Books

Financing Transportation Networks

Financing Transportation Networks by David Levinson
Financing Transportation Networks by David Levinson

As a sign of the times, my first book Financing Transportation Networks (2002) is now available from the Edward Elgar ebook site, Elgaronline.com. They say:

Elgaronline is our ebook and journal content platform for institutional customers such as academic libraries. Researchers and lecturers at subscribing libraries can access and download book chapters and, because the number of users is not limited, you can also direct students to the materials for use in class.

For promotional purposes we have set the front matter, index and any introductory chapter of your book to be free to download.

For institutions that have purchased Elgaronline individual links at the chapter level are also available.

If your library subscribes (mine doesn’t), you can get there directly at: Financing Transportation Networks , published by Edward Elgar Publishing. Otherwise here.

A review is below: published in Annals of Regional Science 38:563 – 565

Book review Levinson, DM: Financing transportation networks (Transport Economics, Management and Policy) Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (US): Edward Elgar, 2002 232 pp., US$ 95,00. ISBN 1-8406-4594-6

Financing Transportation Networks –- is a somewhat misleading title for this important contribution to the transportation finance literature. Rather than seeking to provide a general account of transportation network finance, the book examines the prospect of a widespread adoption of one type of transportation financing option –- tolls (boundary tolls, in particular). Currently, tolls represent less than 5% of total highway revenues. In comparison, gas taxes account for almost 80% of these revenues. Under the right circum- stances, a shift to widespread toll financing of transportation networks is not only possible, according to the author, but it would also offer a more equi- table solution to transportation finance. The author points out that ‘”just as gas taxes substitute more efficiently for general taxes, direct road pricing could substitute for gas taxes.”

The central premise of the book is that decentralization and smaller jurisdictions would serve to facilitate a move toward a more widespread use of tolls as a means of financing roads. The premise is based on the argument that smaller jurisdictions have more motivation to impose tolls than large jurisdictions. Large jurisdictions and centralized governance, it is argued, favor tax financing (i.e., gas taxes and general taxes), because a larger number of trips occur inside the jurisdictional boundaries of large jurisdictions (i.e., local trips) and thereby do not incur tolls (in the case of boundary tolls). The relatively high weight on local trips creates an environment where costs are difficult to recover and where the collection of tolls is politically unstable. Moreover, larger jurisdictions need to recover relatively higher costs at each toll station, due to the larger transport network serviced. Conversely, a more decentralized governance structure would serve to enhance the political fea- sibility for jurisdictions to adopt toll roads, by allowing jurisdictions to institute toll roads that tax non-residents, relatively more than local residents, as well as by reducing ‘”recover costs.” As pointed out by the author, ‘”under the right circumstances, boundary toll will enable a jurisdiction to achieve the locally ideal policy of ‘’taxing foreigners living abroad.’'”

The book is divided into six major parts. The first part (Chapt. 2) provides a comprehensive account of the history of toll roads, both internationally and in a US context. Most important, the section seeks to connect shifts in the level of governance in the US to the adoption of toll roads. Historical data is used to illustrate that the low level of turnpike utilization in the US may be explained by a trend toward national transportation policies. More recent trends, according to the author, indicate that tolls may again become a fea- sible option for road financing. The most important reason for this is argued to be the availability of new technologies for toll collection, and the com- pletion of the US interstate highway system, which have made road financing a local problem again.

The second part of the book (Chapts. 3 – 4) discusses costs and revenues involved in transportation financing. The cost section offers a conventional review of major cost categories and methodological challenges that need to be accounted for in determining the cost of transportation. While short, the revenue section empirically examines the dependence of state highway finance on tolls, by testing the hypothesis that jurisdictions highway finance is determined in part by the share of non-local traffic. The result indicates that the relative burden of tolls collected from non-locals is positively related to the size of that burden. The section on revenues also provides evidence to support the hypothesis that neighboring jurisdictions commonly respond with new or increased tolls in response to new or increased tolls levied by the neighboring jurisdictions (i.e., a retaliation behavior is found to exist).

The third part provides discussion and analysis of the implication of institutional and organizational structures on the prospect of widespread toll financing (Chapt. 5). Specifically, the relationship between network and governmental hierarchies is examined.

The fourth part (Chapt. 6) briefly addresses the issue of intertemporal equity, as it relates to temporal ‘”free-riders.”

The fifth part (Chapts. 7–- 9) considers the central premise of the book, described above, in three different contexts. These contexts include (1) a beltway; (2) a long road representing an intercity highway that goes across several states; and (3) along a state border. It is illustrated that tolls will be the preferred source of finance, in cases where jurisdictions are sufficiently small, demand sufficiently high and collection costs are relatively low, hence, sup- porting the premise of the book.

The final part of the book (Chapts. 10–-13) develops a framework for evaluating network finance decisions, and examines the deployment of ETC. A summary of the major points and conclusions of the book is provided, as well.

Overall, the book makes sufficient progress toward illustrating how decentralization and smaller jurisdictions may facilitate a move toward a more widespread use of tolls as a financing source for transportation net- works. It illustrates this by using an innovative approach, which put into question the effectiveness of the conventional institutional framework for providing public transportation services. It is noteworthy that the book, at several occasions, utilizes and applies game theory as a method of analysis. The book also addresses and raises a number of important questions about the prospect of a widespread adoption of toll roads in the US that ought to stimulate the emergence of extension studies. For these reasons, the book is an important addition to the existing body of literature on toll roads and road pricing, which conventionally have been focused on optimal road pricing. A drawback of the book is its frequent use of complex economic theories and equations to describe many phenomena addressed in the book. This may be a remnant of its origins. The book is based in part on a doctoral dissertation completed in 1998.

The book ought to be read by any practitioner or scholar who claims a serious interest in transportation finance. It would be an excellent secondary text for any course in transportation finance or policy, in either an economics department or a public policy program. This is a most welcomed addition to the transportation finance literature.

  • Odd J. Stalebrink West Virginia University Division of Public Administration Morgantown, WV, USA Book review 565

 

The Transportation Experience: Cover Art

The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William L. Garrison and David M. Levinson
The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William L. Garrison and David M. Levinson (2014)
Claude Monet  - Gare Saint Lazare (1877)
Claude Monet – Gare Saint Lazare (1877)

 

The cover art for the Second Edition of The Transportation Experience is Gare Saint-Lazare (1877) by Claude Monet. A full discussion of the art can be found at the National Gallery of Art exhibition brochure.

The steam and the perspective, and the common theme of trains and rails evoke the earlier impressionistic (though not necessarily impressionist) Rain, Steam, and Speed by JMW Turner which we used on the cover of the First Edition. Monet’s image is set in a station rather than in motion, and in urban Paris rather than the countryside of England at Brunel’s Maidenhead Railway Bridge, but if you look closely, you see structures in the background of both.

The book is available for order at Oxford University Press,  Amazon and Barnes and Noble

The Transportation Experience - First Edition by W.L. Garrison and D.M. Levinson (2005)
The Transportation Experience – First Edition by W.L. Garrison and D.M. Levinson (2005)
Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway by J.M.W Turner (1844)
Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway by J.M.W Turner (1844)

 

Garrison, W.L. and Levinson, D.M. (2014) The Transportation Experience: Policy, Planning, and Deployment – Second Edition. Oxford University Press

ISBN-10: 0199862710 | ISBN-13: 978-0199862719 | Edition: 2

 

‘The Transportation Experience’

The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William L. Garrison and David M. Levinson
The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William L. Garrison and David M. Levinson

We are pleased to announce that the Transportation Experience: Second Edition, is now available.

The Second Edition of The Transportation Experience differs from the First substantially. Of course all the recent data is updated (the previous edition is nearly 10 years old), the graphs extended, and the text improved. In addition, the book was reorganized chronologically into a series of Waves of Development, roughly 50-60 year periods, in which we track multiple modes in parallel.

The Transportation Experience explores the historical evolution of transportation modes and technologies. The book traces how systems are innovated, planned and adapted, deployed and expanded, and reach maturity, where they may either be maintained in a polished obsolesce often propped up by subsidies, be displaced by competitors, or be reorganized and renewed. An array of examples supports the idea that modern policies are built from past experiences.

William Garrison and David Levinson assert that the planning (and control) of nonlinear, unstable processes is today’s central transportation problem, and that this is universal and true of all modes. Modes are similar, in that they all have a triad structure of network, vehicles, and operations; but this framework counters conventional wisdom. Most think of each mode as having a unique history and status, and each is regarded as the private playground of experts and agencies holding unique knowledge, operating in isolated silos. However, this book argues that while modes have an appearance of uniqueness, the same patterns repeat: systems policies, structures, and behaviors are a generic design on varying modal cloth. In the end, the illusion of uniqueness proves to be myopic.

While it is true that knowledge has accumulated from past experiences, the heavy hand of these experiences places boundaries on current knowledge; especially on the ways professionals define problems and think about processes. The Transportation Experience provides perspective for the collections of models and techniques that are the essence of transportation science, and also expands the boundaries of current knowledge of the field.

Garrison, W.L. and Levinson, D.M. (2014) The Transportation Experience: Policy, Planning, and Deployment – Second Edition. Oxford University Press

ISBN-10: 0199862710 | ISBN-13: 978-0199862719 | Edition: 2

 

The book is available for order at Oxford University Press,  Amazon and Barnes and Noble

The Transportation Experience – Reviewer Comments

The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William Garrison and David Levinson
The Transportation Experience: Second Edition by William Garrison and David Levinson

My author’s copy of The Transportation Experience just arrived, so it is a good time to talk about the book, which will be available is available for pre-order now. Below are comments from reviewers.

Garrison, W.L. and Levinson, D.M. (2014) The Transportation Experience: Policy, Planning, and Deployment – Second Edition Oxford University Press

Publication Date: February 3, 2014 | ISBN-10: 0199862710 | ISBN-13: 978-0199862719 | Edition: 2

“It’s hard to imagine a more comprehensive survey of transportation history than The Transportation Experience. The book guides readers from the days of steam engines and turnpikes to those of high-speed trains and robot-driven cars-blending top academic insight with colorful biographical bites. Whether your interest is infrastructure, public policy, transport theory, or just travel in general, you’ll grow wiser from the journey.” — Eric Jaffe, author of The King’s Best Highway

“Everything you wanted to know about transportation is in this book. It is not only a comprehensive look back at the transit methods that built the nation, but a look forward based on how the lessons from the past can be applied to the modern metropolitan economies. This book could not come at a better time.” — Robert Puentes, Director, Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, Brookings Institution

The book is available for pre-order at Oxford University Press,  Amazon and Barnes and Noble

5 or so Books about Minnesota, Transport, and Land Use You Should Read — streets.mn

I have a post up at Streets.MN: 5 or so Books about Minnesota, Transport, and Land Use You Should Read. The whole post is below:

You are reading Streets.MN, you might have something to do with Minnesota, Transport, and Land Use, and you are probably literate. Here are some books you should read.

Main Street by Sinclair Lewis
Main Street by Sinclair Lewis
  1. Lost Twin Cities – Larry Millett
  2. Twin Cities by Trolley by John Diers and Aaron Isaacs
  3. Main Street by Sinclair Lewis
  4. Minnesota in the 70s by Dave Kenney and Thomas Saylor
  5. Potluck Supper with Meeting to Follow: Essays by Andy Sturdevant

What else you got? Add more to the comments:

5 or So Books on Transportation Economics and Policy You Should Read

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson
The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

You are sitting by the fire, in your leather chair that just reeks “old money”, a reading light behind you, in your smoking robe and slippers, Labrador Retriever by your feet, pipe in one hand, a good book in another. What is that good book? Something about transportation economics and policy of course. Here are some of my favorites …

  1. The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger – Marc Levinson (no relation, though I met him once) [review]
  2. Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition – Flyvbjerg, Bruzelius, and Rothergatter [review]
  3. Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment – Altshuler and Luberoff
  4. Going Private – Jose Gomez-Ibanez and John Meyer
  5. Curb Rights – Daniel Klein, Adrian moore, and Binyam Reja

5 or So Pieces of Children’s Transportation Fiction You Should Read (With Your Kids)

Thomas the Tank Engine by Rev. W. Awdry
Thomas the Tank Engine by Rev. W. Awdry

If you believe your kids should be indoctrinated in transportationism, you will get them appropriate books. While transportation fiction is a narrow category, kids books about transportation are plentiful. Here are some books and stories I liked for which the transportation technologies are important elements and geared toward younger readers.

  1. The Phantom Tollbooth (book and movie)
  2. Go, Dog, Go! – PJ Eastman (the abridged version is almost poetic)
  3. Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus – Mo Willems
  4. The Railway Series –  Rev. W. Awdry
  5. Richard Scarry’s What Do People Do All Day

Suggest more in the comments